Organic farming of watermelon; farming procedures

Organic farming is an ancient farming method practiced by our ancestors to cultivate the crops and gain quantitative and qualitative yield from them. They used eco-friendly manures, fertilizers and pesticides to enhance the soil. They maintained a balance between the man and the ecosystem. Humans and nature were equally happy with this technique, it was beneficial for both.

Nowadays people are trying to bring back this technique in the farming process. As the conventional farming techniques started to create problems to the health of humans and destroyed micro-organisms, insects etc., humans turned around to the traditional way to produce food.

Here we are going to talk about farming criteria’s of watermelon.

Watermelon is a refreshing fruit that we have during the summer days. It is proved to contain low calorie and high amount of vitamin C, vitamin A and other beneficial ingredients. Watermelon is formed with 92% of water. Scientist has proved that watermelon consists of elements that can reduce the risk of cancer by reducing IGF (Insulin like Growth Factor). They are also found to reduce heart diseases.

Biologically, watermelon falls under the category of Cucurbitaceae family. They share a relation with cucumber, squash and pumpkin. Watermelon comes in different shapes, they can be globular or oblong. And in colours, they have light green, dark green, stripped and solid.

Watermelon is a warm season crop and they are best grown in the tropics. Compared to all other vegetables and fruits, for the efficient growth, watermelon crops needs more heat approximately between 25-30 degree Celsius. Fruits attain good quality at 30 degree. Cloudy and rainy season damages the crop and reduces the fruit production and also the fruit will lack sugar content. The best soil will lack sugar content. The best soil to grow Watermelon crops are well-drained loamy soil. Repeated growth in the same soil increases the probability of diseases.

Check the soil for organic content for the healthy growth of the plant. They need an optimum pH level in soil for providing expected yields. Acidic soil may result in blossom drops.

Before planting the crops, they are treated with manure, compost and other natural leaves. Water stagnant can cause fungal infections, so proper drainage system is formed in the farmland.

Next, the watermelon seeds are planted with a standard spacing of 1m between two plantings.

When it comes to irrigation, the beds are irrigated two days before planting and after 5 days when the seeds are sown. After that, when the plants become mature, they are irrigated every week. Required amount of water must be maintained in the roots so that they form a tap root system. When the crop flowers and has fruits, irrigation level is reduced and fully stopped during the harvesting stage. Reducing the irrigation can help to increase the sugar content in the fruit.

Both male and female flowers are present in the same plant. Natural carriers such as bees help in pollination.

Pruning operation is not performed in watermelon but the first fruit in the vine are often removed as this fruit will not have the capability to develop well and can affect the coming fruits.

Compared to other fruiting plants, watermelon crops are heavy consumers of manures. Liquids fertilizers and seaweed extracts are sprayed to the plant at regular intervals. In addition to this phosphorus and potassium are applied.

Mulching process is practiced in Water melon plants. The beds are covered with dry straw to maintain the moisture content, prevent nutrients leaching and improve aeration.

Major diseases which affects watermelon:

  • Viruses
  • Undeveloped fruit set
  • Fruit drop
  • Fruit cracking
  • Small fruit

Major pests which infect Water melon crops are:

  • Nematodes
  • Stripped and spotted cucumber beetles.
  • Aphids
  • Armyworms
  • Leaf miners
  • Spider mites

Water melon is commonly harvested after 80-90 days for bush varieties and 90-100 days for large varieties.

Organic farming of capsicum; effective methods

Organic farming is a farming technique which uses environment friendly products to enhance the crop as well as the soil. It does not promote the use of chemical products that causes harm to nature as well as humans. The major manure used in organic farming includes green manure, farmyard manure, neem cake etc. They also promote the use of compost and enhance the growth of earthworms and other micro-organisms.

Here we are going to discuss about the farming techniques of capsicum.

Capsicum is also called as red pepper or chilli pepper. It is considered as a herb with high medicinal values. Apart from using capsicum as a vegetable, they are also used for producing different medicines. Capsicum is proved to heal rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis and other severe conditions.

Among the capsicum varieties there a particular variety that causes severe eye pain and other unpleasant effects. This form is used to make pepper spray mainly used for self-defence.

Capsicum comes under the genus of flowering plants and is a member of the nightshade family Solanaceae. There are different techniques to cultivate capsicum which include polyhouse, greenhouse or open field. This crop variety is less attacked by pests and insects. They are generally grown in warm areas and the plant reaches a height of about 75cm.

Capsicum plants bear flowers in white and purple colour. The optimum temperature range for capsicum is between 21 – 27 degree Celsius. Among other countries in the world, India is one of the leading producers of capsicum.

Capsicum comes in different colours such as green, red and yellow. While choosing the seedlings we must ensure that they are resistant to diseases and will provide high quality yields. The chosen crop variety should fulfil the minimum requirements of farming.

Capsicum plants does not have deep roots, they have shallow roots. So the best soil to cultivate them is loose soil. It is better if the soil is acidic and has a pH range between 5.8 – 6.5

Capsicum grows efficiently in loose loamy soil with a good drainage property. Beds are raised to a certain height from the ground level for crop cultivation.

Before planting the seedlings we must ensure that:

  • The soil is tested for pH and the value is between 6 – 6.5
  • Salinity value of the soil should not exceed 1ms/cm
  • Soil should have the porous property and good drainage property.
  • The farmland should be well ploughed and mixed with organic manure before planting.

Capsicum has both winter crop variety as well as summer crop variety. The winter crops are generally sown in the month of August and the summer crops during the month of November.

The standard spacing dimension of capsicum is 60 cmx 70cm.

The capsicum seeds are not directly sown in the farmland. They are first raised in the nursery and once the plant becomes mature, they are transferred to the farm. During the nursery time the beds are covered with a thin layer of soil manure and are provided with light irrigation. When the plant develops 4-5 leaves, they are ready to get transplanted.

Correct amount of nutrients should be added to the soil to get the required yield. Commonly applied manures are farmyard manures and neem cake. The seedlings before planting are treated with Azospirillum and PSB culture. During the end of first month of planting vermicompost is applied to enhance the growth of the plant. Deficiency in the required nutrients badly effects the fruit growth and quality.

Farmers use drip irrigation technique for the capsicum crops. These plants need water content all the time so drip irrigation is the best method to maintain the moisture content. To keep up the humidity in the air, a fogger is used. The optimum humidity range required for the crop is 90 – 92%. Never use hard water or distilled water for irrigation. Only use fresh water.

Capsicum plants tend to produce many fruits at a time. So it is our responsibly to inspect every fruit and remove the unhealthy ones. This process is called fruit thinning and is done to promote the development of other fruits. Fruit thinning is done during the initial stages of fruiting before the fruit gains size.

Even though capsicum is not prone to much pest attacks, some pests like aphids, white flies and red spider mites attack them. To avoid them from infecting, the fruits are applied with derris or fatty acid sprays. In some cases neem oil is also used.

Some of the organic methods to prevent pests are:

  • Polythene sheets: Polythene sheets are used to protect the fields from pests and diseases. They also prevent the sudden increase of heat of the soil.
  • Neem extract: Neem extract are sprayed on to the plants to get rid of juice sucking insects in capsicum plants. The standard procedure is to spray 3 times in 15-20 days.

Capsicum harvest can be done after 60 days of planting in the case of green capsicum, 80-90 days for yellow capsicum and red capsicum. When the fruit turn dark green, yellow or red in colour, they are ready to harvest.

Organic farming of banana; points to keep in mind

Organic farming is an oldest farming technique which was passed on to us through generations. In olden times people did not have access to chemicals. So they used manures, fertilizers and pesticides extracted from the nature to nurture and protect their crops. By doing so they lived in harmony with the environment and they stayed healthy and lived for a hundred year. But today the condition has totally changed. Nowadays the minimum lifespan of a human is 60 years. This decrease is due to the toxic chemicals that we consume through our food and in the air we breathe. Conventional farming techniques use chemicals to increase the yield. This affects the human body adversely causing many health issues and diseases.

Here we are going to discuss about banana cultivation.

Banana is a commonly available fruit with essential, nutrients and helps in digestion, maintain heart health and improve weight loss. Banana is also used as a snack food. Banana was originated in South East Asia and they differ in size, colour and shape.

Commonly found variety of banana is the Cavendish type. Along with nutrients, banana contains fibre as well as antioxidants.

When you take a banana, it will contain 105 calories, water and carbohydrates.

Banana is well grown in every soil types with good organic contents and a good drainage property. Before planting the seedling manures and fertilizers are applied to increase the fertility of the soil.

Along with banana, some intercrops are planted to increase the fertility of the soil. Mainly used intercrops are leguminous plants like coffee, vanilla, cocoa and other tropical fruits.

The banana seedling is generated by using suckers and rhizomes. Also nowadays, tissue cultured plantlets are also used. While selecting the seedlings ensure that they are disease free breed and has good yield generation capacity. Suckers can vary in shape. Some are large, some are small. Large suckers are planted in the direction of windward and the smaller one behind them. By following this technique, we can reduce the damage of the crops during heavy winds.

After a month of planting, vermicompost is applied to the soil to provide effective nutrients to the plants and on the 75th day farmyard manures are applied. After the 95th-100th day provide them with Azospirillum, phosphobacteria and vermicompost.

Compost is nothing but organic products applied to the soil. The products are biologically broken down by bacteria, worms, fungi and other micro-organisms releasing the nutrients in them.

Compost is the main source of fertilizers for the banana crop. It helps to improve the quality of the soil, increases microbial activity and removes toxic content from the soil.

Soil for planting should be selected based on the structure, porosity, depth, ventilation and optimum pH level.

As banana is a warm season crop, they need a temperature range of 15 degree Celsius for better growth of the plant. Banana is often planted where there is optimum sunlight.

Weeds can drain nutrients from the soil so there must be a proper weed management. In most of the cases mulching is done to prevent weeds. The area under the plant is covered with green leaves or dry hay to prevent weed growth.

Banana is planted based on different seasons. Some are planted during the rainy season. During heavy and continuous rainy season, seedlings are planted after the rain that is during the months of September-October. And in areas where rains are not much available, they are planted during June-July.

Standard spacing of banana crops include 1.5 m x 1.5 m and 1.5 m x 1.8 m

Manures applied

  • During the time of planting farmyard manure, compost or green leaves are applied.
  • After a few days lime is applied to the pit and allowed to decompose.
  • Vermicompost is applied during the time of land preparation.
  • Ground nut cake is provided to the plant during planting.

Major pest varieties that infect banana crop are rhizome weevil, nematodes, leaf spot, bunchy top etc. In most of the cases, these pests are removed using dasparni arka and neem cake.

Harvest period of banana is from 11-12 month when the fruit reaches the perfect size, they are harvested. Usually they are harvested before ripening.

Organic farming of grapes; facts to know

Organic farming is considered as the most efficient technique of farming these days. This method incorporates natural products to enhance the growth of the crops. No chemical additives are used in this farming technique. Organic farming is a cultivation criterion which is related to the environment. Manures, fertilizers and pesticides, everything are extracted from the nature. Due to this reason, organic yields do not cause any health issues.

Here we are going to discuss about the farming techniques of grapes.

Grapes are a nutritional fruit that comes in different colour and forms. Based on colour, they are categorized into red, green and purple. Based on form, they divided as seeded grapes, seedless grapes, grape jellies etc.

Grapes are found to be originated in the Middle East countries. They are the main source of wine. In a year, around 7.2 trillion gallons of wine are produced around the world.

Grapes are found to have many medical benefits. They are proven to heal cancer, high blood pressure, heart diseases and constipation. The major contents in grapes are fibre and water. Apart from nutrients, they also contain antioxidants which have various benefits.

Grapes come under the family of Vitaceae and the crops are mainly grown in relatively warm temperate areas. There are two different varieties of grapes, with seeds and seedless. Grapes are one of the major crop varieties in India.

Grapes tend to adapt in every soil types but the efficient ones are loamy soil which has the presence of organic matter and humus. These are soil with deep-medium texture, good drainage property and less salt content.

The optimum pH level of soil should be 6.5 to 7.5. Grapes require warm planting area which receives full sunlight and moderate water. While choosing seedlings, choose those plants which can grow efficiently in the conditions of your farmland. The planting soil should be loose, rich with nutrients and deep enough for the roots to protrude. Approximately the roots are estimated to go up to a depth of 24 to 36 inch.

Application of organic manures such as compost, cover crops etc. will help the growth of the crops and strengthens the structure.

The spacing of grape vines is decided based on the crop variety and soil fertility. The standard spacing practiced is 2.5 mx1.5 mx2.75 mx1.50 m.

Propagation of grape vines is done by using the cutting method. For this, the hardwood cutting of the previous year’s shoot is prepared. After cutting and propagation, only the healthy cuttings are transferred to the farmland. Cuttings which are healthy and disease resistant can only provide good quality vines. The cutting process is carried out in the month of January.

Farmlands with light sandy soil are applied with a standard dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. Nutrients should be provided to the soil to enhance the healthy growth of the plant. Compromise in any of the nutrients will result in the reduction of the growth rate and the quality of the yields.

In organic farming, the soil is fertilized, more than the plant. When manures are applied to the soil, the microbes present in the soil decompose them to form nutrients and other forms such as humus.

In order to increase productivity, the vines are subjected to pruning. Pruning is a technique where any of the vegetative part in the vine is removed. This ensures an expected grape vine framework and high rate of yields.

In this process, healthy canes are cut by keeping 2-3 buds which slowly develops into healthy canes after 4-5 months. When the pruning operation is carried out in dried canes, it is known as ‘back pruning’ and when the vines are pruned for grapes, it is known as ‘winter pruning’.

Pests affect the grapes vigorously. In order to avoid the attack of pest, 4 major factors are followed by the farmers:

  • Site selection
  • Grape variety selection
  • Farmland management
  • Sanitation

As grape vines are prone to the attack of pests and diseases, extra care should be taken. The plants need to be monitored regularly and if any infection is found, treat the early using organic pest solutions. Apart from small pests, birds are also attacking the grapes. As a preventive measure, netting is done all around the farm as soon as the grapes start to ripen.

Major pest which attacks grapes are:

  • Cane girdlers
  • Grape berry moths
  • Leaf rollers
  • Japanese beetles
  • Black rot
  • Dead arm
  • Powdery mildew

Grapes are harvested normally after 30-70 days of fruit set. They are harvested when the colour changes from dark green to light green or red to purple. During the ripening stage, acidity inside the fruit decreases and the sugar content increases.

Organic farming of cucumber; Points to remember

Organic farming is an oldest farming method to grow crops in relation with the ecosystem. It uses primitive products for manures and fertilizers that don’t harm the micro-organism and humans. This technique enriches the soil as well as the yields.

Cucumber comes under the category of fruits even though they are commonly used along with vegetables. Cucumber is rich with beneficial nutrients and anti-oxidants that help to prevent many medical illnesses. Cucumber is a watery fruit with low percentage of calories and soluble fibre. They increases hydration rate and helps in weight loss. About 96% of cucumber is water. So it is a best treat to have in summer seasons.

Higher amount of fibre content is present in their peels. So while eating cucumber never peel off the outer skin. Cucumber is a best medicine to reduce blood sugar.

Cucumber is a warm season crop. The plant contains scrawling wines and wide spread leaves with curly tendrils. The scientific name of cucumber is Cucumis satvius and it was originated in India. Cucumber are eaten in different ways, they are eaten raw, cooked or as salads.

In most of the cases, cucumber is cultivated using Greenhouse technique as it increases the productivity and the fruit will contain many nutrients.

For the effective growth of cucumber, loamy soil with a good drainage system is suitable. We must also ensure that the soil is rich with organic contents like nitrogen, potassium, zinc, iron etc. To keep up the fertility of the soil, farmers practice crop rotation, soil tillage, organic amendments and agro ecological services crops. To grow efficiently, the crops need a pH of 6.0-6.5 for mineral soils and 5.0-5.5 for organic soils.

For a perfect greenhouse cucumber farm, there should be moderate temperature, high light intensity, low humidity and market accessibility.

Cucumber demands warm soil for better growth as it cannot tolerate cold conditions. Usually temperature above 16 degree Celsius is suitable for its growth. In most of the cases, the seedlings are germinated inside the garden and kept there for three weeks after which they are transferred to the farmland. Each plant is maintained a distance of 6 to 10 inches.

After planting, organic vegetable fertilizers are applied to the plant in earlier stage after which supplementary feedings are provided at regular intervals.

Green house cucumbers have unique characteristics such as large leaves, swift growth and require large amount of sunlight. Inside greenhouse the plants are placed within 5-7 square feet.

Irrigation is done twice a week by using a hose or sprinkler. When it comes to greenhouse crops, they require a little more amount of water than normal crops. Cucumbers come under the family of watermelon so these crops require a huge amount of water to exist. In order to maintain the wetness in the soil, mulching is done. The soil surface under the plant is covered with dry leaves or haze to avoid the soil being dry. To maintain the wetness, the farmers incorporate drip irrigation technique.

To enhance the growth, cucumber plants are provided with Kelp, compost, alfalfa and neem cake at correct timings and in required quantities. Application of organic fertilizers decreases the nitrogen deficiency diseases.

Over irrigation should be controlled. Provide proper drainage systems to avoid water logging and restrict growing crops in areas of high water table.

The major pest which effects cucumber plant is the cucumber beetles. These beetles are trapped using yellow sticky tapes. Yellow is used because these insects are very much attracted to that colour. Apart from these beetles, no other pests cause major damage to the crops.

Cucumbers are harvested when they attain a perfect size and shape. When the cucumber turns into dark green, it gives us a sign that they are ready for harvesting.

Organic farming of oranges; steps to follow

Organic farming is an ancient method of farming which improves the yields and also increases the nutrients in the soil. This technique does not use any harmful ingredients that affect humans or other living organisms. They increase the fertility of the soil by eliminating the need for chemical manures and pesticides. Nowadays more and more farmers are joining the club of organic farming leaving behind the conventional methods. They started choosing the right path which balanced the ecosystem.

Orange is a fruit which contains low calorie and high nutritious citrus. They are a combination of sweet and sour. Oranges are very helpful in developing a strong and clear skin and helps to maintain energy level in human body. Orange is consumed raw, as juice or as salads and flavouring desserts.

Orange is a rich content house of vitamin C. They also contain compounds like anti-oxidants which are helpful to control inflammation and other related diseases. The scientific name of orange is Citrus Reticulata. Orange is considered as the most popular fruit in India. Among these 40% of the oranges belong to the category of Mandarin oranges. Other than Mandarin orange, varieties like sweet orange and acid lime are cultivated in India.

The peels of orange are widely used in the production of cosmetic items which has high International market value.

Oranges are grown effectively in frost-free tropical climates and regions about 1500 m from sea level. It needs an annual rainfall of 100-120 cm and an efficient temperature ranging from 10-15 degree Celsius.

Oranges are widely cultivated in different soils like sandy loam soil, alluvial soils, clayey soil or acidic soil. Orange trees require soil with good drainage capacity and the ideal pH range of the soil should be between 5.5 to 7.5. Sometimes the soil tends to accumulate calcium carbonate. These are harmful for the growth of oranges and will adversely affect the yield. So before planting the seedlings, test the soil to ensure purity.

In India, major crop varieties of orange include Coorg santra, Nagpur santra, Khasi santra, Shringar, Mudkhed and so on.

While cultivating in plain lands, they are ploughed thoroughly and initial manures are added before planting. When it comes to sloppy hill areas, terrace farming is practised. Prepare a proper drainage system with a depth of 3-4m. Improper drainage will result in water logging and will badly effect the growth of the trees.

Seedlings of oranges are propagated using healthy disease resistant seeds. They are also developed by using T-budding technique. When the seed germinate and reaches an optimum health condition, they are transplanted to the farmlands. This is mainly done during the month of July-August. The budding process is done during the month of January.

Orange seedlings are mainly planted in pits with a dimension of 50x50x50 and each plant is separated by a distance of 4.5-6m.

During the initial year of plantation, critical stage of watering is required. Providing irrigation at proper intervals reduces the fruit drop and increases the size of the fruit. Over irrigation can result in diseases like root rot and collar rot. To mitigate this, light irrigation with high frequency is considered. The water should be tested before providing it to the crops. If the water contains 1000ppm salt, then it is harmful for the plant. Micro irrigation or drip irrigation is commonly practised by the orange farmers.

Orange tree require a good amount of nitrogen to produce efficient yield. So they are applied to the crops through organic manures including farmyard manures (FYM), cakes etc. Nitrogen is applied to the crops at fixed intervals of April, August and November. Sometimes potassium, zinc, copper, manganese and iron are added with nitrogen for better growth.

Nutrients should be applied in correct quantities or else it may hinder the growth of the crops. Macro-nutrients are applied directly to the crop but micro-nutrients are only provided through foliar spraying.

To increase the strength of the stem or shoot, initially appeared shoot are removed up to 40-50 cm from the ground.

Different variety of pests can cause harm to the orange trees. Some of includes citrus black fly, citrus psylla, leaf miner, mealy bugs, bark eating caterpillar etc. These pests can cause poor performance in the terms of fruit production. Organic insecticides like phosa lone, monocrotophos, quinalphos etc are used to mitigate these insects and pests.

Major diseases like tig blight, gummosis, root and collar rot and damping off can destroy the crops if not removed from the initial stage. After detection, the plants are applied with Bavistin, Ridomil MZ 72 etc based on the type of infection.

To avoid the growth of weeds, tree bases are mulched with dry leaves or paddy husk. They are covered to a thickness of 8cm. Mulching also decreases the chances of over irrigation and helps to maintain the fruit quality.

Orange varieties cultivated in India can be generalized into two types, Ambiabahar and Mrigbahar. Ambiabahar is harvested during the month of January and Mrigbahar is harvested during February-April. Oranges takes 240-280 days to get matured to harvest.

Live streaming disruption; popular channel Nine TV under cyber attack

Cyber-attacks against established and financially sound organizations are finding hype these days. They either demand a high amount of ransom or just interrupt the network and damage the important files. They mainly get into the target’s server or network through unpatched vulnerabilities. Vulnerability is an important criterion while looking on to cyber-attacks. The threat actors conduct a thorough research on the operating system, servers and networks used by the target. They will scan them using their hi-tech tools to find an open or unidentified vulnerability. Through this loop hole, they lurk into the systems of the target. It is never an easy task. It takes time and effort.

Recently a cyber-attack has been reported which disorganized the live broadcast of the famous Australian channel Nine TV network. This attempt raised questions about the nation’s security among the common people. If highly secured institutions like Nine TV has been take down, then how are the government and authorities going to protect the security of the people. Nation’s cyber security protocol was put at stake.

The officials and the employees of Nine TV said that one fine morning they were not able to air the live contents, including Weekend Today.

There are doubts about the cyber-attack whether it was an attempt of sabotage by the hackers or if there are any hidden presence of foreign nations to launch cyber war.

In olden days, if there is any problem between two nations, they will involve in war to prove their worth. Gradually as time passed, every nation deployed their own armed forces to fight against each other. But today it is an era of bio-wars and cyber wars. Compared to physical combat, these methods are much easier and would cause intense damage. Every countries and nations around the world are now preparing themselves to launch or defend a cyber-attack. Recently, India has faced a severe cyber-attack from China that interrupted the power grid systems and caused economic and technical damage.

The attack against Nine TV was taken into serious consideration. The Australian parliament issued orders to investigate about the chances of cyber-attack in Canberra on March 28, 2021.

As a precaution, the access to confidential files, IT and mails of the Australian Parliament House has been blocked. This was done as per the orders of Assistant Defence Minister, Andrew Hastie. He took the decision to protect the external provider and causing further issues. He also added that after the attack, the government acted quickly to ensure no more further damages are done to the organization. The officials are also trying to find out the link between the cyber hacks at the Nine TV and the parliament outrage.

On a broad perspective, the Australian government, corporates and other major institutions has been under the string of cyber-attacks for the last 5 years. Based on this, the Prime Minister of Australia, Scott Morison predicted cyber espionage from the foreign nations using sophisticated technology. Australia is building their cyber security stronger in order to defend these attacks.

About two years back, in 2019 some of the political parties and the Australian parliament were intensely hit by a cyber-attack. Some of the suspected nations include Russia, China, Iran and North Korea. These are the nations which have difference in opinions with Australia.

How did the channel respond?

The owners of the channel, The Sydney Morning Herald and the Age Newspapers reported that not much of the datas were affected. Mainly the publishing and radio divisions were left unharmed.

When the attack was launched during the morning live show, the employees felt it as a technical glitch and they reported that the live which ran 7:00 to 13:00 local time has been cancelled due to technical issues. Along with the live broadcast, the official site was also affected.

The channel assured that the IT teams are working on their networks to restore them and bring back the corporate business unit and the radio will come to the operational terms very soon, the company said.

The cyber security researchers claimed that Australia has reported around 60,000 cases of cyber security breaches and technically in every 10 minutes one cyber-crime happens.

After fixing all the patches, the TV channel was able to air the programs by Monday.

What are the possible ways to prevent cyber-attacks?

  • Educate your employees about the cyber security principles.
  • Install a strong anti-virus or anti-spyware software.
  • Use a protected firewall.
  • Do regular back-ups.
  • Eliminate multiple accesses to sensitive information.
  • Secure your Wi-Fi networks.
  • Change passwords constantly.

Online bullying and racism; football player Thierry Henry leaves social media

Apart from connecting to friends and sharing ideas, social media can spread hate speech and racism. Even if we tell that today’s society has improved and serves equality, there are still people who hate black people and believe that they are below the white people. Colour discrimination has caused several riots in US where most of them were suppressed by the white people. From real life, this hate and discrimination has followed them to social media and other online platforms. Mass cyber bullying and cyber stalking through social media resulted in mental imbalance of most of the people. Many have quit social media due to the immense pressure put by some of the groups targeting the black people.

Last week, football legend Thierry Henry announced that he will be deserting social media as an action of protest against racism and bullying in social media. He told that this was a strong decision and wanted to stand with the people affected by them. He will continue to stay away from social media till the authorities’ takes necessary action against this issue. He took this decision as he has also been a prey to others insult and cyber bullying.

Henry also exclaimed that, the current officials and the government are very quick in taking decisions in the case of copyright infringements but does not give consideration to people suffering from racism and social hate. In this issue their vigorous decision making skills does not heat up. This is inequality and the government is being partial.

The skilful ex-forward player of Arsenal points out that there are particular groups who are focussing in promoting racism and nowadays it became very easy for the people to harass and bully them. When people believe the world has changed, these kinds of incidents come up. He also added that the authorities should consider the mental health of the people who are undergoing cyber harassment based on their colour, community, race and caste. With the hope that everything will come to an end, he left his social media account.

The major cause to this growing issue is due to the improper monitoring of the social media by the concerned authorities. They are not eradicating the problem or trying to find a solution including the technical perspective as well as monitoring perspective, says Jonas Baer-Hoftmann.

Apart from Thierry Henry, other footballers like Bellingham, Mracus Rashford, Raheem Sterling has also faced the bitter side of racism and cyber bullying.

There are also incidents where the footballers expressed their protest against the black hate inside the stadium.

The skilful ex-forward player of Arsenal points out that there are particular groups who are focussing in promoting racism and nowadays it became very easy for the people to harass and bully them. When people believe the world has changed, these kinds of incidents come up. He also added that the authorities should consider the mental health of the people who are undergoing cyber harassment based on their colour, community, race and caste. With the hope that everything will come to an end, he left his social media account.

The major cause to this growing issue is due to the improper monitoring of the social media by the concerned authorities. They are not eradicating the problem or trying to find a solution including the technical perspective as well as monitoring perspective, says Jonas Baer-Hoftmann.

Apart from Thierry Henry, other footballers like Bellingham, Mracus Rashford, Raheem Sterling has also faced the bitter side of racism and cyber bullying.

There are also incidents where the footballers expressed their protest against the black hate inside the stadium.

Cyber racism and bullying

Cyber racism is nothing but expressing the hate using social media or other online platforms. Racism is spread through different ways like images, videos, posts, comments etc.

Cyber bullying is defined as utilizing the information and other technologies to cause deliberate hostile behaviour and to harm people. The main intentions of cyber bullying are:

  • Escalating fake informations and posting embarrassing photos of the target in social media.
  • Sending messages that hurt their emotions and centimence.
  • Faking someone’s profile to send harsh messages to others that tortures them mentally.

After effects of cyber bullying

  • Mental breakdown: Feeling of upset, stupid, ashamed or even angry
  • Emotional breakdown: feeling of helplessness and losing interest on things you love.
  • Physical breakdown: Sleeplessness, experiencing fatigue and headache.

How to prevent online harassment and cyber bullying?

  • Communicate with your parents, teachers and friends about this and find a permanent solution. When feeling mentally unstable, consult a psychiatrist.
  • Educate today’s generation about cyber bullying and the consequences that can happen due to it. Teach them how to overcome.
  • Monitor your children’s activities. If you find any change, talk to them.
  • Ask yourself that is it going to harm anyone before you post or comment on anything.
  • Set up privacy controls.

Organic farming of Okra; methods to follow

Organic farming is mainly used to produce environment friendly yields and products. From the propagation till the harvest, everything provided to the crop are natural and safe. Organically farmed fruits and vegetables are a source of nutrients and other compounds useful for the human body. If we still continue to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides, we will give birth to a generation with less immune system and will be prone to diseases.

It’s high time we stop following the conventional farming techniques and practice organic farming.

Here we are going to discuss about okra farming.

Okra, also known as ladies finger is a warm season crop. They are rich source of vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants and fibre. The fruit contains a sticky liquid inside them which are used to make thicken sauces.

These crops varieties are cultivated around different countries due to its nutritional value. Apart from fruits, these crops are also used for their leaves, bud, flowers, pods, stem and seeds.

Okra is posed to have a unique texture with peach-like fuzz on the outer body and the inner portion contains lobules with small seeds.

Okra is rich in Iron, phosphorus, copper and anti-oxidants. Scientifically these organic matters tend to decrease the possibility of cancer. They also tend to have anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory.

Okra is one of the major crops in India. Indians call them Bhendi. Okra is a tropical crop which requires moderate and humid temperature to sustain. They are usually grown at an altitude of 1200m. The preferred temperature for plant growth is between 24-28 degree Celsius. Surprisingly, higher temperature can increase the growth of the crop but delays fruiting. Above 42 degree celcius may cause flower drops.

Mostly, the initial compost applied to soil before planting includes earthworms, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After this, fixed amount of neem cake is applied. All these combinely improve the texture of the soil, water holding capacity as well as better root development. Wooden burnt ashes are also used as a source of fertilizer.

Main crop varieties of okra include Green fruited and red fruited. Green fruited varieties consist of Kiran, Susthira, Arka Anamika etc. whereas red fruited consists of Co-1 and Aruna

The best soil to cultivate Okra is well-drained loamy soil which contains a better amount of humus. The pH value should be between 6 – 6.8.

Okra is also grown in garden soil.

For the summer variety crops, seed rate is 20 kg/ha which is mainly sown in January – February.

Before planting the seeds, they are dipped in water for 12 hours. After that, they are treated with diluted cow urine solution. This helps to reduce bacterial and fungal infections. The standard space maintained between each crop is 30cm and they are usually brought up on ridges.

If the seeds are left unsolved, they are packed in polythene covers after treating with Trichoderma and pseudomonas because it increases the storage life of the seeds up to 7 months.

Steps in applying manures and fertilizers:

  • Application of fresh cow dung slurry.
  • Treat them with biogas slurry.
  • Next cow urine is applied.
  • Progressively, vermiwash, vermicompost and ground nut cake is applied.

Pests are insects are the major threat to okra plants. Major pests which infect okra plants are:

  • Shoot and fruit borer
  • Leaf hoppers
  • Flea beetles
  • Aphids
  • Stink bugs
  • Earworms

Major diseases affecting okra are:

  • Powdery mildew
  • Fuserial wilt
  • Leaf spot
  • Damping off
  • Fruit rot
  • Anthracnose

Normally, the fruits are plucked after 45-65 days of sowing. The yield mainly depends on the crop variety.

Fake profiles; scammers impersonating US commander in Afghanistan

Social media has witnessed a serious hype in cyber-crimes. Hackers were using various techniques to compromise users account and steal personal information. The most common type of strategy used by the scammers are phishing links and impersonation. Even when the company is ensuring strict protocols to defend cyber scams, the threat actors finds their own way to exploit the users. As people spend their majority time in social media, the chances of attack has increased. In most of the cases, people are tricked by using fake accounts impersonating legitimate people.

Recently, in the Kabul region of Afghanistan, cyber security officers have found people being exploited using fake accounts claiming to be the US commander in Afghanistan. More than hundred accounts have been compromised by these hackers.

In most of the cases, the impersonated account was found to be in the name of General Scott Miller. This scam was spreading through social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. According to the reports, these cyber groups are also targeting on Google Hangouts, Pinterest and Scrabble app.

The main intention of these groups is to extract money and personal informations including financial credentials, gift cards and cell phone numbers.

The cyber security crew warned people that General Scott Miller does not own a public social media account and the hackers are trying to deceive people through falsely created fake accounts to steal sensitive information. They also said that, if at all anyone came across such happenings, report it to USFOR-A and block the account.

Once the warning went viral, one of the Twitter users Lenna Dunagon claimed that she has been contacted by around 60 Miller fake accounts through various platforms, out of which one of the person was found to be 49 year old man from Africa. But till now he didn’t open up to the cyber cell on how he got the information.

Another victim of the attack, Elke Gloyer told that she has been experiencing exploitations from fake accounts every day from fake accounts, which she felt like an ‘endless war’.

General Scott Miller has been serving US and NATO forces for years and has remained inactive for nearly two and a half years.

While in the service, he was given the charge of the Twitter accounts of the positions of USFOR-A and NATO support commander. The noticing factor is that he has not posted a single tweet after he got the authority of the accounts.

The government has announced a detailed investigation in this case and has decided to bring down the cyber groups.

Impersonation scams

Impersonation scams happens when a person uses fake accounts, messages and phone calls to trick the target and leaks his personal information, financial data and other sensitive information.

How can you identify an impersonation scam?

  • When a person, even a familiar one contacts you from nowhere asking about your personal or financial information or to transfer money.
  • When someone urges you to do something quickly claiming that ‘your money is at risk’ or ‘your account will get blocked’, if the given instructions is followed.
  • The email address is different with that of the legitimate sender.

Types of impersonation scams

  • Transfer money to a ‘safe’ account scam.
  • Problem with the network scam.
  • Police impersonation scam.
  • Outstanding HMRC tax bill.

Tips to avoid impersonation scams

  • Protect your account by limiting the personal information.
  • Study about phishing scams and the ways to detect and prevent them.
  • Before making any payments, verify the identity of the receiver.
  • Establish a dual control system for payments. For a transaction to take place, two person need to give permission. This reduces the risk of scams.
  • Do regular check-up of your social media.