How does environment benefit from organic agriculture?

Organic cultivation is a farming technique that focuses on ecosystem management along with producing quality yields. This system completely boycotts the use of external agricultural inputs. They also eliminate the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, additives and preservatives. They are replaced with organic materials which increase the fertility of the soil and does not harm the living organisms.

The major benefits of environment by practicing organic farming are:

  • Sustainability: As year’s passes, changes are happening in the nature. These are long term differences happening gradually with time. Organic farming considers bringing changes in these interventions. Along with developing quality yields, it also aims at maintaining ecological balance. Through this they regain the soil fertility and increase the growth of essential organisms in the soil.
  • Soil: To improve the quality of the soil, organic farming incorporates techniques like crop rotation, inter-crops, cover crops, symbiotic gatherings and the use of organic manures and fertilizers. These methods enhance the flora and fauna present in the soil and thereby producing an apt soil structure and formation. Through these techniques, the nutrients are restored in the soil. They can also help to control hazards like soil erosion. Through organic agriculture the possibilities of erosion are decreased, loss of nutrients are low, the productivity has increased. Apart from applying organic fertilizers, supplementary resources like nitrogen, phosphate, potassium etc. are provided to the crops.
  • Water: The major problem arising due to conventional farming is the contamination of the ground water. The use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has raised a major threat to the water bodies. Since the use of chemicals is strictly prohibited in organic farming, these improve the structure of the soil as well as purify the water bodies. With the use of natural manures and fertilizers, the possibilities of ground water pollution are reduced. In areas where the water pollution is high, Government has recommended the farmers of the area to start organic farming and has introduced different schemes to support them.
  • Air and Climate: Organic farming has the ability to control the greenhouse effect by holding the carbon in the soil. Many practices like deploying nitrogen-fixing crops, reducing the tillage, usage of cover crops etc. has caused the carbon to remain in the soil. Studies have shown that the percentage of carbon deposit inside the soil is higher for organic farming. When the amount of carbon decreases in the atmosphere, the adversity of greenhouse effect is also decreased and thereby improving the climatic conditions.
  • Biodiversity: Organic farming improves the presence of biodiversity in the fields. Through healthy biodiversity, the problems like bad weather, pests and diseases are reduced. The decrease in biodiversity can make the crops vulnerable to diseases and gradually depletes the crops.
  • Consumes less energy: As organic farming does not depend on the using chemical fertilizers, it has gained a lot of energy. Synthetic fertilizers are produced by using sufficient amount of energy. Through organic farming we can save around 35-50% of this energy.
  • Decreases Nitrogen induced pollution: The conventional style of farming uses Nitrogen as a major ingredient to produce fertilizers. As per the reports, the production rate has boomed to 65% in the last for years. This is a very serious issue and can cause danger to the marine life and disturbs the balance of the entire ecosystem. Through organic manure and fertilizers, the content of Nitrogen is reduced in the environment and hence decreasing the pollution.

Organic farming of Broccoli

Organic farming is a cultivation technique which largely avoids the use of synthetic compounds like chemical fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators. Organic farming follows the pattern of crop rotation and inter crops. They use natural manures and fertilizers to increase the efficiency of crops. Organic farming ensures food security and maintains the balance of nature.

In this blog we are going to discuss about the farming methods of broccoli.

Broccoli is vegetable variety which is similar to the shape of a tree. They belong to the species called ‘Brassica oleracea’. Broccoli is closely related to other vegetables like cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts etc.

Broccoli can be classified into three types:

  • Sprouting broccoli
  • Calabrese broccoli
  • Purple broccoli

Broccoli is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, fibres and anti-oxidants. They are consumed raw or cooked. Broccoli contains high amount of vitamin C, so they are good for eyes.

Broccoli is a cool season crop that needs moderate temperature for efficient growth. It does not develop well in hot weather conditions. Among the three types of broccoli, the green one is popularly cultivated.

Broccoli is well suited in light sandy soil to heavy loamy soil which contains required amount of organic matter. Fertilization of crops is a major factor in broccoli cultivation.

Broccoli is a heavy consumer of Nitrogen. So manures containing nitrogen should be supplied at required quantities regularly for the production of quality yields. Over supply of nitrogen can cause hollow stem disorder and damages he crop. They are well grown in the soil having pH around 7.0.

Before planting, the soil is applied with compost and mixed equally. The soil should always be kept rich with nutrients and should have a proper drainage system.

Even though they are cool season crops, they require full sun for the development of the head. While selecting the place to plant the crops, select a shady region which gets optimum day light during the morning and does not get dried out in the afternoon sun. if not you can use artificial shades.

Mulching is practiced for broccoli crops to keep the soil wet and cool and prevents bolting. The standard spacing while planting the crops is 45×45.

Manures like compost tea, fish emulsion and other liquid manure are used to energize the crops. If the supply of manures becomes more, it leads to a state called ‘eutrophication’, which means over growth or increase in the lifespan of the crops. This is a major issue that cause the death of fish in rivers and streams.

Apart from these, nitrogen rich manures like alfalfa meal and poultry manure are supplied to the crops.

Broccoli is often affected by pests like cabbage worm, root maggots and flea beetles. As a prevention criterion, the crops are covered with floating row so that these pests won’t attack the crops. To hinder the effect of cutworms paper collars are placed around the stem.

Damping off and clubroot attacks are the major disease affecting broccoli crops. Once you spot a crop affected by damping-off, just try to remove the crop to prevent the spreading.

Clubroot attacks aims at the root of the crop and converts them into knots and nodules, affecting the ability of the plant to consume water and nutrients. This disease arises mainly due to the air gaps present in the soil. To avoid this, soil should be compressed well before planting

Insects also cause the damage of broccoli crops. Some of them include cabbage worm, cut worm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth larvae and cross-stripped cabbage worm. These insects are mainly prevented using oil spray and garlic spray.

Harvesting of broccoli is done after 80-90 of planting. The matured broccoli heads would be 3-6 inches in size. A healthy broccoli head would weigh up to 250-300 grams.

Adobe Premiere Pro

Adobe is a platform for creative people. It consists of different tools which helps users to improve in their field of interest. Adobe has wide variety of features that helps to grow in the areas of photography, video editing, designing etc.

Adobe Premiere Pro is an advanced software used to edit videos, films and TV shows. Premiere Pro is a combination of creative tools, integration with other apps and Adobe Sensei. Premiere Pro helps the user to convert their videos into a more refined form. Videos can be merged including visual effects to make the story telling method smoother.

The software is fast in working and can save you a lot of time. The presence of Adobe Sensei feature makes the work flow easier and improves the visual effects. Videos can be polished to bring out a better result.

Videos ranging from 8K to virtual reality can be edited using this software. Flexibility in the file formats, light weight proxy workflows and fast HDR helps you to make up the videos as you wish. The process can also be done using mobile workstations.

You can also combine your works Adobe Photoshop, After Effects, Audition and Adobe Stock while you are working in Premiere Pro. Templates can be transferred from these softwares to PP.

Premier Pro software is subscribed on monthly basis and this is the most common tool used by most of the production houses. When compared to Final Cut Pro and Apple’s Video Editor, Premier Pro is supported in both Mac and Windows. This is very useful software for both beginners and experts.

The recent updated version Premier Pro 14.9 was released on February 2021. They fix their flaws and vulnerabilities in every updates. They have added new features like codec support and quick export in the latest update.

The main motive of Premier Pro is to make the software user friendly and also to increase the productivity and work quality. To ensure this, they set up different tools that manage workspaces, editing, effects and audio. Workspaces can be switched between your works by using the tab option. To make it more easy, the workspaces are divided into resizable panels.

Audio is an important element for a video. Premiere Pro consists of wide variety of powerful tools which helps in editing audios like mixers, meters and effects. These audio enhancing features helps you to adjust bass, mute the background noise, make changes in the reverb and bring out a clean audio.

This software helps the users to directly download high-quality stock audios. They can also be categorized based on the genre, tempo, mood and duration. This will make your work easier.

The Quick Export feature gives the user direct control of frequently used export settings. They can select the export file format and quality of the export.

Adobe Premier Pro is priced Rs.19, 158 including GST for one year and Rs. 1, 675 per month. Premier Pro is only available as a month-to-moth subscription or annual plan.

Key features of Adobe Premier Pro

  • Tutorials and learning content for the beginners.
  • Advanced features to work with any camera format.
  • Easy workflows with high-resolution content.
  • Proactive editing techniques with customised work spaces.
  • Intuitive Lumetri Colour tools to provide a Cinematic look.
  • Improved audio mixing features.
  • On screen graphics and tilting tools to add more impact.
  • Wide range of graphic templates.
  • Video exporting to any format.

Premier Pro does not need internet connection to function. It need internet only during the time of validation of your membership.

According to the reviews of the users, Adobe has successfully met the needs of the members by constantly updating the software. Premier Pro has simplified the working process for them. Advanced tools, constant updates and streamlined interface has made than one of the best video editing software.

This is a pro level editing software and for casual users, it may feel a bit difficult to cop up with. For the beginners, they are providing a learning tutorial and guides through the features of the software

Basic system requirements for Premier Pro

macOS

  • Intel 6th Gen or latest CPU
  • macOS  v10.14 or latest
  • 8GB RAM
  • 2GB of GPU VRAM

Windows

  • Intel 6th Gen or latest CPU or AMD
  • Microsoft Windows 10 version
  • 8GB of RAM
  • 2GB of GPU VRAM

Organic farming of coriander; a detailed study

When the humans understood that chemical applied fruits and vegetables can no longer make them healthy, they turned to organic products. Organic products ensure a healthy life, free from diseases and increases immunity. Organic farming ensures no harmful chemicals are applied to the crops. This technique use manure, pesticides and fertilizers which are extracted from nature and don’t harm the essential living organism. Organic farming maintains harmony with the environment.

In this blog we are going to discuss about the farming process of coriander.

Coriander is basically an herb which is used as a spice in most of the dishes we use. Coriander seeds are obtained from ‘Coriandrum sativum’ plant. The leaves of the plants are also used to furnish different food varieties. They share a strong bond with other crops like carrot, parsley and celery. The leaves of coriander plants are called as cilantro.

Coriander falls under the family of Apiaceae. The main highlight of coriander is its tangy flavour.

Corianders are usually grown in pots or prepared beds. They require well-drained loose soil for the efficient growth. These crops reach a maximum height of 3 feet, so it is easy to cultivate. Coriander was found to be originated in the Mediterranean region. This is one of the crops which are widely cultivated in different states of India.

When the crops are cultivated only for leaves, slow bolting variety is preferred. This variety is well adapted in hotter climates and does not produce seeds quickly.

While cultivating for seeds, fast bolting variety is advised. This type is well suited in cold climates and warm dry climates during the time of maturity. The soil preference for coriander crops are well-drained loamy soil.

The preferred pH level for the soil is between 6.0-8.0. Before planting the seeds, the soil is ploughed well and organic manure & compost are applied by mixing it with garden soil. This provides enough nutrients during the initial growth.

Coriander crops should be kept hydrated always. They should not be left to dry. For the development of healthy seeds, the crop requires minimum 6 hours of direct sunlight. Sunlight helps in the development of fragrant oils inside the stem.

Coriander crops are directed propagated from the seeds. The seeds are placed 1.2m deep in prepared beds, leaving 5 cm gap between each seed.

The sowing season of coriander is during the first week of October. Generally to sow the seeds, Pora method is used.

Corianders are crops that love moisture content. So to maintain that, water should be continuously supplied. Drip irrigation is mainly practiced. To block the growth of weed and to maintain moisture, mulching is done. Water logging should be avoided. Large amount of water can damage the crops. Never allow the plant to wilt.

As a method to prevent bolting, mulching is done using barley straw since this helps to maintain the coolness in the soil. Once the crop becomes mature, farmyard manure is applied along with vermin compost.

Organic manure such as Cator cake is directly applied to the soil. They decompose faster to release nutrients which are readily consumed by the crops.

Major pests that affect coriander crops are:

  • Aphids
  • Powdery mildew
  • Leaf spot
  • Leaf hoppers
  • Armyworm

 These crops are also infected by diseases like:

  • Aster’s yellow
  • Bacterial infection
  • Damping off

Coriander leaves becomes mature to harvest after 40-45 days of planting. Healthy grown leaves with a length of 10-15 cm are separated from the plants.

Whatsapp chats; what is the surety that it’s private?

Whatsapp is a prominent social media platform which is used to text, have voice calls and video calls with anyone around the world. The main feature of Whatsapp is its privacy and end-to-end encryption. When it comes to privacy, no application available today can beat Whatsapp. Today, the American owned Facebook Company has around 2 billion users worldwide. On a daily basis 65 billion messages are being transferred across 180 countries.

Compared to other messaging apps, Whatsapp is simple and enables the user to send text, audio, video and document files. All these transmission are protected by end-to-end encryption, only the sender and the receiver can read the message. Even the developers of Whatsapp cannot read the message between two people.

Nowadays, the reputation Whatsapp made through all these years started to deplete slowly. Serious allegations are being raised against Whatsapp on the issue of privacy. They are also alleged of unauthorized access and misuse.

In India, there are instances where the authorities use the chats of people for investigation purposes. But this has brought up concern among the people about their security and the privacy apparatus of the established application. Cyber departments and the media using privacy chats for their purpose has questioned people’s fundamental right. People are now demanding an effective comprehensive law that protects their data and privacy.

As per the research, other social media platforms like Telegram, iMessage and Signal are vulnerable to data leak. Whatsapp strongly claims that, if a user sends a message to another user, the data is travelled from the device to the servers of Whatspp. From there it gets transferred to the target device. There is no interception in between. This is what they technically call as end-to-end encryption. They add that each message will have an encryption lock, which can only be opened by the receiver using the decryption key.

In most of the cases as discussed, cyber cell officials are backing up the suspects Whatsapp messages and are not decrypting the messages in the middle. There are speculations that the hackers and the government are deploying spyware in Whatsapp to leak chats from the targeted phone where they can view the decrypted messages live.

When you activate the back-up option in Whatsapp, it automatically stores the messages in the Google drive or iCloud. In such cases it becomes easy for the hackers to get access of your data. So in order to retrieve the back-up, the user has to uninstall Whatsapp and then reinstall them from the same device or another.

Your messages or data are not stored in the Whatsapp servers. Once you send a message or document, if there is any delay in sending, Whatsapp temporarily stores the information in the servers until it is sent to the other user. The maximum time frame Whatsapp can keep a data is 30 days. If it not delivered even after 30 days, the message is automatically deleted.

When you text someone and delete them from your chat, is it possible for the authorities to retrieve them?

Yes, as per the Telegraph act when a person is suspected of a crime, it is possible to get back the chats of the person even if he has deleted them. This is based on the device the person use and its vulnerabilities. The chat service provider has nothing to do with this.

So in general it is possible to leak the Whatsapp data by a technically skilled hacker.

Things to do, if you feel unsafe or feel that your data is leaking

  • Disable the Whatsapp cloud back-up option

To disable the back-up, just go to the ‘settings’ and select ‘chat’. Under the chat option you have ‘chat back-up’ and update ‘Never’ so that Whatsapp will no more store your messages. The messages you send will remain only on your phone as well the recipient’s phone. Finally, disable the back-up feature.

  • Erase the Whatsapp chats from the Google Drive

Even though you have turned off the back-up feature, there will be previous messages stored in the Google Drive or Cloud. To erase them, visit the official page of Google Drive and click on to the gear icon. Under the settings, look for ‘Managing app’ and next ‘Whatsapp’. When you select Whatsapp you will find ‘Delete hidden app data’. Click on to that and erase everything.

  • Deleting the chats from iCloud

Erasing the stored data is easier for the iPhone users. They just need to go to the settings and click on your name to enter the Apple ID settings. Next go to the ‘iCloud’ tab and select ‘Manage storage’. Under manage storage option you will have the ‘Delete Data’ button which helps you to clear your chat.

Financial institutions becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks; decline in the economic growth

Cyber-attacks are concentrating in every sectors of the society. Nowadays attacks against financial sectors are increasing day by day. The hackers find these sectors as a good source of money. The threat actors have developed advanced skills and tools to crack the security and get into their networks.

Recently, a huge cyber-attack occurred against the Hungarian financial institution. As per the investigation, it was a combined attack from the hackers of China, Russia and Vietnam and they used DDoS attack strategy. Once the hackers got control over the networks, they introduced botnets that caused heavy traffic in the servers of the institution. This traffic was around 10 times greater than the normal traffic. In this way they got control over the financial and sensitive informations.

The hackers are using complex digital ambuscade to take down the firms. It is due to this reason that the financial institutions make their security stronger.

The security researchers are finding possibilities in the increase of ransomware attacks against banking sector in 2021. They will target the sensitive information when the officials will be busy arranging the money for the ransom. 85% of cyber-attacks happening today are connected with the pandemic. Millions of people has shifted their work environment and are using unsecured network to access the company information. This opens a new ray of hope for the cyber hackers who are waiting to exploit your organization.

To avoid all these consequences, the banking sectors should strengthen their security measures and monitor every happening occurring inside the company.

Latterly, financial firms are adopting cloud services for better resilience and pliant working strategy. Compared to other services cloud computing ensures more protection and now they act as silver linings for the financial systems.

Choosing the cloud services opened a new path of digital transformation for banks and other financial entities. Implementing cloud services in the banking sectors is a slow process but some of the banks like Forbes reporting Bank of America, Llyods, BNP Paribas and Toho bank have successfully upgraded to cloud computing. It is estimated that by the end of 2021, 60% of the financial entities will establish cloud services.

Every bank might have experienced cyber-attacks in one or the other form. Financial sectors are 300 times more vulnerable to cyber threats than other institutions, reported the Boston consulting group. In 2016, the cyber hackers hijacked nearly 100 million dollars from the Central Bank of Bangladesh.

The research conducted by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York finds that the impact of cyber-attack on banks is higher because of their interconnectivity system. State sponsored hacking group’s poses main threat to institutions these days.

Comparing to the officials and authorities, customers does not have more effect on the cyber-attacks against banks. They have trusted the banks and deposited the funds. If something goes wrong, they officials have the full responsibility to refund them. Business accounts are more vulnerable to attacks since they poses fewer protection compared to other accounts.

When the hackers target a financial institution, they would take down the processing systems and make changes in the critical financial transactions. They even decline margin calls.

Cyber security is becoming the top priority of the banking sector.

How to prevent cyber-attacks against financial firms?

  • Have a regular check-up and back-up of customer data.
  • Each employee should be allowed separate user account and they should change the password in every 3 months.
  • They should have a strict ban against using banking networks to download or install unauthorized softwares.
  • Banks should have a proper approval protocol. Both the sender and the receiver must approve before the transaction.
  • Networks should be protected with Firewall.
  • Every system in the organization should have a secure anti-virus software and threat detection software.

Social media hacks in LinkedIn and Facebook; user’s data in Jeopardy!

Social media and other online platforms are witnessing the worst cyber hacks and data leaks these days. Hackers are using advanced strategies to take away the accounts and sensitive information of the users. Even after securing the servers where the data’s are stored, threat actors find new ways to exploit them and take away their control.

Facebook and LinkedIn are two major social media platforms that have millions of users. During the first week of April, Facebook witnessed a data breach which leaked around 530 million user data and published it in an unsecure database.

Similarly, LinkedIn was also under the trap of cyber hackers. Around 500 million data were lost from LinkedIn servers.

In both these cases, the hackers posted the data publically so that anyone could access them.

The Facebook developers explain that the leaked data was gained from user’s profile by the hackers using ‘contact importer’. The developers added this feature to Facebook so that people can connect with friends who are in their contact list. This feature was brought about in the year 2019. Once they understood that the threat actors are misusing them, the developers made variations in the contact importer feature.

Security researchers points out that Facebook hasn’t disclosed the breach completely in the past. Till now, Facebook has not completely accepted the responsibility of the data breach. They argue that it wasn’t the data present in the system which was used to exploit the vulnerability.

They also added that, this time the hackers did not get the access of the user’s data through hacking our system but they scraped it from their platform prior to the previous data breach.

Immediately after knowing about the breach, Facebook has fixed them back in 2019. But they still had vulnerability and the access of the previous data which paved way for the new exploitation. There are possibilities where the social media hackers may have mashed the data set with other publically posted records.

But now, Facebook has closed all the loopholes and ensured tight security of their user information. They individually rectified the inadequacy in the systems.

While considering the case of LinkedIn, user’s information along with publically viewable data was scraped away from the platform. The security team of LinkedIn conducted a primary level of investigation and found that the leaked data was posted publically for sale. The leaked data was a combination of different other data from different websites and companies.

As per the census, the drained data consisted of names, email addresses, phone numbers and other sensitive information of around 500 million users. LinkedIn in total has 740 million members. The hackers released around 2 million data back to LinkedIn and sold the rest.

As per the policy of LinkedIn, contact information is only made accessible to the first-degree connections, but it is a questionable fact that how the threat actors gained control of these data.

Even after strong security measures, Facebook and LinkedIn data has been compromised.

How to protect yourself from Facebook data breach?

  • Think before you share all your personal information in Facebook.
  • Analyse things before you share them.
  • Never use Facebook to visit other websites.
  • Have a unique and strong password.
  • Install threat detection software.

How to protect your LinkedIn account from data breach?

  • Update your privacy settings and never over share your personal details.
  • Enable two-step verification.
  • Choose secure browsing (HTTPs) to make you stay away from malicious and fraudulent websites.
  • Provide a strong password and keep on changing them on a regular basis.
  • Never open suspicious emails, links and attachments.

Social media hacks; ways to secure your business social media account

Everyone uses social media. The use of social media has hyped during the lockdown days. Equally, cyber-attacks against social media platforms have increased. Social media hackers are finding new ways to launch attacks. They use modern technology and strategies to trap the users. Hackers target social media because of its huge user bases. New findings are coming out that social media attacks can get hold of a user’s contacts, locations and even business activities. This means that no one is safe in social media. Information’s don’t have much security in these platforms.

As per the reports, around 22% of social media users have encountered security issues. A few months back, the malicious pony botnet has affected Facebook, Yahoo and Google. The botnet leaked around 2 million login credentials of the users. The survey took by Facebook reveals that in the 50 million active users of Facebook, half of them are fake accounts and are used to perform malicious activities.

Back in 2014, there occurred a ‘fake flag’ attack which deceived the social media users to disclose their own personal information and authentication credentials.

Businesses depending on social media platforms are likely to face ‘reconnaissance’ attacks either directly or by any third party groups to leverage the data and sensitive information of the enterprise.

In today’s society, social media is the key platform of marketing for many businesses. So once the business account gets compromised it causes severe damage to the integrity and reputation of the business. There are also possibilities of a financial loss. For this it is very crucial to safeguard the business accounts from cyber-attacks.

Let us look into some of the effective ways to protect your business account:

  • Select a strong password

The initial step towards protecting your social media account is to set up a strong and authentic password. Provide a password which can’t be guessed easily. It should contain letters, numbers and symbols. It must not be complicated that you can’t keep it in mind. Never create password related to your life and make sure that you give different password to different social media accounts.

  • Change your password regularly

It is preferable to change your passwords at regular intervals mainly for business account. When an employee leaves your organization, change the password. We can’t expect everyone to be loyal every time. Whenever there is a change in password, communicate it with the other staffs.

  • Use two factor authentication

This is the safest way to secure a social media account. Employess can only login, if they get the 6 digit PIN sent to the owner of the account via text message or email. Whenever you login from a new device, the authentication password is required.

  • Have a regular inspection about who has access of the accounts.

As the owner of the business account, you must always check who is accessing the account and what his activities in his account. Limit the numbers of people accessing your account. Minimum 2 people should know your password because if one has to leave, unfortunately the work will be at stake and the password will remain unknown.

  • Always keep your information offline.

Instead of keeping information opens for the hackers, just log out of your account once you are done. Never save the password for business account. Enter the username and password manually for login.

  • Create a separate email address for business social media management.

By using a separate email for social media accounts, you can prevent the hackers from gaining access to others sensitive information. Never provide personal email accounts as login credential. These may affect your personal information.

  • Be cautious about public wireless connection.

Never connect your business account to an open public network. There is free Wi-Fi available at public places like hotels, parks, pubs, and airports etc. where they are not protected with passwords. Some networks can be a trap and when connected, your device and account will get infected by malware.

  • Social media security in mobile devices

When it comes to mobile devices, you can save the password and does not need to keep on entering the username and password to login. But still, protect your phone with a security pin or password to prevent unauthorized use of social media accounts.

Organic farming of garlic; methods to cultivate

Organic farming is a natural technique to grow crops. It uses products from the nature to enhance the crops. This method gives us a better yield with quality. Organic farming does not promote the use of chemical products as it destroys the balance of nature and harm the living creatures.

Let’s discuss about the farming techniques of garlic.

Garlic is an important ingredient used in many of our dishes. They belong to the family of Allium and shares relation with onions, leaks and shallots. The garlic fruit is made up of individual bulbs called the clove. These cloves are protected by a thin layer of covering. In a single fruit, there will be around 10-20 cloves. Garlic is significant due to its smell and delicious taste. They are of good medical importance due to the presence of sulphur compounds. Along with sulphur, other beneficial compounds like diallyl disulphide and sallyl systeine are also present in them. They are consumed in different forms, chopped, crushed or chewed. Garlic also boosts the immune system in our body.

During the initial stages, garlic was cultivated under mild climates but gradually they were effectively grown in cold regions such as Midwest.

Garlic originated in central Asia and north-eastern Iran. This is a major crop in Pakistan and is consumed by millions of people.

Garlic crops grow up to a height of 1m. The scientific name of garlic is Allium Sativum. Basically there are two species of garlic, soft neck and hard neck.

In soft neck variety, the garlic will have a flexible stalk along with the thin skin which wraps the cloves. Soft neck varieties grow well in mild climates. These are more productive than hard neck.

Hard neck consists of a stiff stalk which starts from the base of the garlic bulb till the top of the plant. Compared to soft neck, this has less storage potential.

Soil prepared for garlic cultivation should be rich with organic matter, should be well-exhausted and have a neutral pH. The crops should have a proper drainage system or they will succumb to rot.

While cultivating garlic, other crops like tillage radishes or leguminous plants are planted in crop rotation to increase the nitrogen content in the soil. Before planting the seedlings, the soil is treated with compost, organic matter and other organic fertilizers. Before all these process, soil testing should be done to certify the quality of the soil.

Garlic is usually grown on bare land. They are also planted in plastic mulches. Mulches come in different colours. Black and green are commonly used because they help to retain moisture and increase the soil temperature in spring.

The major manures applied to the soil include organic and livestock manures such as wastes from chicken, cattle, horses, sheep etc.

Common types of organic manures used for garlic crops include:

  • Sheep and goat manure
  • Oil cakes
  • Fish manure
  • Peanut hulls manure

The optimum pH level of the soil should be 6-7 for an effective growth of the crops. Soil testing and soil preparation is done before a month of planting. Before planting the crops we must ensure that compounds like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulphur are present in them.

The suitable growing period of garlic is during the early autumn and harvest before the early summer. The crops need a bit hotter climate during the development of the bulbs.

The garlic seedlings are planted 2-3 cm below the ground level. Organic fertilizers are applied directly to the soil or mixed with water and applied through drip irrigation.

Major fertilizers applied to the soil include:

  • Neem oil
  • Blood meal
  • Bone meal
  • Shellfish fertilizers
  • Rock phosphate
  • Green sand

Garlic crops are provided with drip irrigation or trickle irrigation. To maintain the moisture content in the soil, mulching is done.

Weeds are the major killers of garlic crops. To avoid weeds, the beds are mulched with dry straw.

Major varieties of pests that infect garlic plants are:

  • Wireworms
  • Onion maggots
  • Stem and bulb nematode

Major diseases caused to the crop include:

  • White rot
  • Basal rot
  • Blue mold

Harvest of garlic is done when the leaves turn yellow and later completely becomes dry. During this stage, the garlic is pulled off from the ground.

Impersonation scams; scammers use fake accounts to steal money from social media

Social media cyber frauds are increasing these days. In one or the other way cyber criminals find a way to trick users and extract money from them. Since the pandemic has resulted in the increase of users in social media platforms, scammers are planning new techniques to perform malicious activities. Majority of the users in social media are youngsters. Sometimes they are easily tricked through scams which attract their attention.

By the end of 2020, Facebook witnessed a scam where the fraudsters impersonated themselves as family members or friends of the target and looted money from them.

As per the cases reported, the fraudster approaches you with a friend request in Facebook where the profile would be of a friend or a family member whom you lost touch with in the past few years. When you open the profile you find the person’s images and personal information familiar and you recognize them as your friend. So you accept the friend request. The next step is exchanging conversation. You will receive a message stating “Hi” and “How are you?” After a set of basic conversation, they direct the conversation according to the need of the scammer.

He passes you with an urgent message that he is in an emergency situation and is hardly in need of money. He even cooks up stories and sends you some evidences which make you believe that it is legitimate. Feeling sympathetic about their condition, you will send the money to the account he provides.

This has been a common platform followed by the scammers to deceive the users. Many cases have been reported about these impersonation scams. The scam was found to be spreading in Facebook for quite a long time.

First the scammer studies about the target. He will have a detailed investigation about the target’s friends, family members, social media activities and his weakness. If the weakness is a person which he hasn’t contacted for a long time, the hackers will deploy ways to create a fake account with the profile picture copied from the original account.

Once the target is successfully deceived, the scammers create a situation of urgency so that you transfer the money fast before you feel any doubts about the situation or account.

When you have agreed to pay the money, the scammers will ask for your account details in digital wallets like PhonePe, Google Pay, Paytm. He then shares his number in which the payment has to be done.

During this process, he will thank you for sending you the money and will also behave like he is in an emergency situation.

The victims of these scams has posted about this on their wall and warned their friends not to fall for such scams. These types of scams have been in Facebook since March 2020.

How to understand whether it is a scam?

Users should be vigilant as they will come across such scams in social media. The first and the foremost step to do is that when you receive a friend request, thoroughly check the profile of the person. Even if the scammer is so talented, he will leave behind a trace that shows the fakeness of the account. So, before falling for anything like this, find out the fake factor and save yourself from such scams.

Steps to check the genuinity of the account

  • First go through the number of mutual friends. If the number is very low, it can be a fake account.
  • Search for similar Facebook profiles. If you find another one with much more personal information than this, the first one is fake.

When you are sure that the account is fake, inform the original person of this account about the existing fake profile. This can help them to alert his friends about the possibility of a scam.

There is an option in Facebook called ‘Find support or report profile’. If you come across some fake profiles, report them immediately. If around 4-5 people report the profile, they will automatically get blocked.

To protect from people impersonating your account, turn on the privacy settings and activate the profile guard for the profile picture. There are also options to lock your photos and albums.